Main events in Egypt since the uprisings of the Arab Spring
Jan. 18 (Reuters) – Egypt will mark next week the 10th anniversary of the start of the mass protests that toppled former President Hosni Mubarak after nearly three decades in power.
The protests erupted on January 25, 11 days after protests in Tunisia forced Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali to flee, sparking revolts against seasoned Arab leaders elsewhere.
Here is a timeline of events surrounding the Egyptian uprising of 2011 and the years since: 2011 January: Protests erupt across Egypt against Mubarak, demanding accountability, freedom and democracy. Security forces killed hundreds in the clashes that followed, and the army rallied amid the unrest. February: Mubarak resigns after 18 days of protests and violence, and the army takes control. 2012 November 2011 to January 2012: Islamists win legislative elections called by the Supreme Council of the Egyptian Armed Forces. The Muslim Brotherhood is the largest block. June: Egypt’s first free presidential election, in which 13 candidates compete, goes to a second round between Muslim Brotherhood candidate Mohamed Mursi and former prime minister and air force commander Ahmed Shafik . Mursi wins with nearly 52% of the vote. August: Mursi appoints General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi Minister of Defense and Commander-in-Chief. December: Mursi passes a new constitution in a controversial referendum that leads to clashes between Islamists and their opponents. 2013 June: Large protests begin against Mursi’s presidency, demanding its elimination and complaining of poverty and instability. July: The army, led by Sisi, overthrows Mursi, who is arrested alongside other Brotherhood leaders. August: Hundreds of Mursi supporters are shot dead by security forces in two Cairo protest camps in what human rights groups are calling the worst massacre in modern Egyptian history. A broad crackdown against liberal and Islamist opposition groups sets in over the next few years. July 2014: Sissi is elected president with almost 97% of the votes on the promises of stability and improvement of a struggling economy. November: Sinai activists pledge to be loyal to Islamic State. March 2015: Egypt announces the construction of a new capital to be built in the desert east of Cairo. June: A bomb attack blamed on Islamist militants kills the Egyptian Attorney General in Cairo. Militant attacks over the next two years increasingly target civilians, including Christians, as well as security forces. August: Sisi opens an $ 8 billion Suez Canal extension funded largely by public subscription. November 2016: Egypt signs a $ 12 billion loan with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and devalues its currency. Austerity reforms increase economic pressure on many Egyptians, but help stabilize the economy. March 2017: Mubarak is released after six years in detention and cleared of charges of corruption and murder of protesters in 2011. November: Islamist militants kill more than 300 people in a mosque on the Sinai Peninsula, in the attack on deadliest in Egypt. March 2018: Sisi wins the second term with 97% of the vote after all serious opponents of the opposition halt their campaigns or withdraw.
2019 April: Constitutional amendments that could allow Sisi to remain in power until 2030 are approved by referendum. The changes also strengthen the role of the military and expand the president’s power over judicial appointments. June: Mursi dies in a Cairo prison at age 67 after suffering a heart attack during a court hearing. September: Small anti-Sisi protests erupt in several cities after online calls from a former entrepreneur and actor, Mohamed Ali.
2020 February: Mubarak dies in hospital at the age of 91. Three days of public mourning are declared. May-June: The IMF accepts new loans of around $ 8 billion to help Egypt cope with the economic fallout from the coronavirus pandemic.
Edited by William Maclean