Second Cold War – The Statesman
Jthree successive incidents in five months the end of World War II the sudden disappearance of the United States President Franklin Roosevelt in April 1945, hardcore surrender from Germany to the Soviet Unionin May of that year and atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki the following August had setting up the cold war terrain that characterizes geopolitics in the next five decades. Presidenttooth Roosevelt wantedmaintain the closeness of the relations which the United States had developed with the The USSR during the war against the Nazis Germany and thought coopration would be the cornerstone world peace in the post-war period world.
His successor Harry S. Truthe man and the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill were, hownever, not enthusiastic about recognizingwholeheartedly edge the soviet contribution to the overthrow of Hitler series of victories after the battle of Stalingrad.
President Truman wanted to establish American supremacy even in the victory against the Power axis. When the Potsdam Conference (July 1945) of three the principal allied powers stood in occupied Germany to decide post-war peace process, the United States had successfully tested the first atomic bomb on July 16, 1945 the deserts of New Mexico. This was kept secret except that Prime Minister Churchill was unofficially informed while the conference was in progress “satisfactorily born babies”. the the event changed President Truman to a completely different person in his posture against Stalin USSR.
The War on the Eastern Front against Japan was still relevant. United States and Britain felt that during the war against Japan, Soviet aid was not no longer necessary, and they would be be able to make Japan capitulate before the USSR could begin its war against the nation in Englishuria. From Potsdam itself, the two allies issued an ultimatum to Japan surrenders, unaware of comentirely the Soviet presence.
They knew that if Japan did not agree, it would justify the act of dropping the atom bombs on Japanese cities. Thereby, Roosevelt’s dream of establishing world peace with cooperation of the Soviet Union was buried by his successor and Hiroshima-Nagasaki has come to mean start of the Cold War. Joseph Stalin, bewildered by the Hiroshima incident, underplayed the event in his own neckentered and declared war against Japan in Manchuria two days later The bombardment. Since the United States could not accept Soviet supremacy in victory against Germany, just like Stalin refusing to accept the United States advantage in ending the war in the extremeis. Although President Truman said the news from Japan onreturn on August 15, the USSR made not celebrate victory over Japan until September 3, when Manchuria been liberated by the Soviets army. Voltage that has emerged for establish diplomatic relations and military supremacy between the of them supperpowers towards the end of the world World War II, Determined geo lessonpolitics for nearly five decades in the form of proxy wars and struggle for global affecting.
The United States and its allies created the army alliance (NATO) in 1949 to contain Soviet influence in Europe. USSR in response formed an army alliance (Warsaw Pact) with its Eastern European allies. The first decisive initiative for end of the cold war was taken by Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev when he wanted to limit nuclear weapons, approve Gerthe unification of man, and to restrict his country of military interventionlies when its allies in Eastern Europe abandoned communist rules and withdrew from the Warsaw Pact.
Instead, the Soviet leader domestic policy oriented and economic reforms. Internal reforms initiated by Gorbachev eventually led to the disintegration Soviet Union but that’s different story altogether.
German reunification symbolized the end of the Cold War. That “NATO expansion is notacceptable” was clarified by Gorbachev during the negotiations with the West on German unificationcation in 1990/1991. NATO won’t move “an inch to the east” was the assurance given to him. This spirit of cooperation on the part of The United States and its allies have changed directiontickly in the background of West triumphalism after disintegrationtion of the USSR, a very simrelated to a drastic change in posture by Harry Truman and Winston Churchill after successful tests of the atomic bomb during the Potsdam Conference.
If NATO’s commitment was exclusively within the framework of deployment of foreign troops and nuclear weapons in the ancient orient Germany or if that meant The expansion of NATO into any other eastern countries is a matter of sayingput today. It seems there was a significant gap in perception between what was it exactly there in writing negotiation recordstions on regardingunification of germanymany (before collarfall of warsaw pact and disintegrationtion of Soviet Union) and what russian leaders interpreted as such. However, the fact Rest that Mikhall Gorbachev, Boris Yeltsin and Vladimir Putin repeatedly occasions expressed their seriousness concerns about NATO’s decision to surround the Russian Federation by the new Member States. NATO members went from 16 in 1990 when the cold war appearedently finished at 30 when Russia invades Ukraine. Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic, first of allwhile members of the Warsaw Pact, were included in NATO in 1997. Three former Soviet states Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania were included in 2004 with BulGaria, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. Albania and Croatia joined in 2009, Montenegro in 2017 and North Macedonia in 2020.
Of 14 new members who NATO inducted after the collapse of USSR, three were formerly Soviet States, seven belonged to the warsaw the Covenant alliance and four were parts of non-aligned Yugoslavia. Bosnia and Herzegovina and two forSoviet States ~ Georgia and Ukraine ~ officially expressed its membership aspirations before the outbreak of the current war. Of later, Finland with which Russia shares a 1,300 km border and Sweden have expressed their willthe opportunity to join NATO.
What made the allies of the The Soviet Union joins NATO after the disintegration of the USSR? Been due to perceived security Russian successor threat the state or did it reflect the aspirationtion of the common mass to be in the league of western liberals democracies?
Liberal democracy has never been a prerequisite for membership of NATO. If it had been so, Portugal, under authoritarian rule at that time, could not be one of founders. Eastern people European countries wanted to European integration, market economics and liberal democracy but by joining the military alliance of the West was quite differentproblem ent. The purpose of the formtion of NATO immediately after World War II was to provide collective security against the Soviets Union. Was it necessary to this military alliance to continue even after disintegration Soviet Union and collapse of the Warsaw Pact Alliance? If the spirit of cooperation who was seen during the negotiationtions for the reunification of Germany had prevailed, the successive United States the administrations would not have I liked NATO enlargement so muchimmediately after disinintegration of the USSR. enthusiasmasm of the United States and its allies in enlargement of NATO created in turn Russian security concerns. perceived safety concerns of West Russia and Deputyversa have created a cold again war situation in Europe.
New threat perceptions both sides now claim a neutral position of the central states and Eastern Europe for the sake of peace. Whatever the outputcome from the Russian-Ukrainian war, eastern and southern parts of Ukraine ~ Donetsk, Luhansk Oblasts, Mariupol and Berdyansk gonna be the new conflict areas. It will have a bitter and distant effect have consequences unless the neighboring countries take proaceffective measures to diffuse the threat perceptions of two superpowers.
Although the global community through and great condemned the Russian invasion in Ukraine, we should not call into question the fact that NATO’s eastward policy and Russia’s recent violent reaction to who prepared the ground for the second wave of the cold war after a break of three decades.
(The author is a former civilian servant who retired in additional secretary rank to the Government of India)